In this lesson students will learn that product packaging is a balance between function, food safety, and economics by designing a protective package for shipping perishable fruit. Each package will be presented to the class for evaluation, and the best design will be shipped to test the product's durability.
For the teacher:
Packaging Grading Rubric
Examples of fruit packaging materials
Packaging materials for students
Samples of one type of fruit for students to measure and weigh
For each group:
Packaging materials for fruit package design
For each student:
Cruisin’ for a Bruisin’ lab worksheet
Essential Files (maps, charts, pictures, or documents)
Biodegradable: the ability of an object to be broken down through the action of microorganisms. For example, paper bags are biodegradable, plastic bags are not.
climate: the usual weather conditions in a certain region.
commodity: something that is bought and sold. Examples of agricultural commodities include milk, alfalfa, grapes, almonds, and poultry.
specialty crop: fruits, tree nuts, vegetables, herbs, spices, nursery, floriculture, and horticulture crops that are not considered staple foods.
Background Agricultural Connections
Interest Approach – Engagement
Ask students to identify some of their favorite fruits. Make a list on the board. Point out that these fruits can likely be purchased at your local grocery store. However, were they grown nearby? In some cases, perhaps they were. However, in many cases due to varying climates and growing seasons, we consume fruit (and other foods) that were produced in other areas of our country or even across the world.
Fruit is perishable. Ask your students, "How does the fruit get from the farmer to the grocery store and eventually to you as the consumer?
In this lesson, students will:
identify the necessary materials and design packaging for a new food product;
learn the characteristics of effective packaging; and
learn that packaging a product involves science, engineering, technology, and math.
This lesson focuses on the science of food packaging and uses fruit as a specific example. Provide several examples of fruit packaging containers for students to examine. Examples include strawberry clam shells, cardboard trays with indentations for holding individual pears or apples, and sacks of oranges. If examples are not available, show the class online examples. Ask students why they think fruit packaging is important. Make a list of ideas on the board.
Use the background information to help develop the list on the board of who is involved in food packaging, its importance, and possible careers. Effective food packaging is important to farmers because they want their product to look appealing and taste fresh when it gets to consumers. Farmers, however, also need to consider the cost of the packaging. Expensive packaging can reduce profits that farmers need to make from the sale of their products. Product packaging is important to consumers who want to purchase a piece of fruit that smells good, tastes good, is clean, is not bruised or damaged, and has been packaged using safe food handling practices and materials.
Explain that students will take on the role of food packaging specialists in a challenge to design the best package to ship one piece of fruit. Not only should the package protect the fruit, but it should also be cost efficient and environmentally friendly. For example, a group could place a piece of fruit inside a very large box that is packed with layers and layers of bubble wrap. While this box might prevent the fruit from being damaged, its large size and use of extra materials would be costly to assemble and ship, and would generate a lot of waste.
Distribute the Cruisin’ for a Bruisin’ lab worksheet and packaging rubric. Explain the lesson process and evaluation using the rubric.
Organize students into groups. Explain that each individual in the group will design and test their own package prototype. The best package in the group will be selected based on rubric scores on package design and durability. The group will then have the opportunity to work together to fine tune the best designed package from their group, which will be presented to the class. The class will then vote on one package to be shipped in the mail with a piece of fruit.
Instruct groups to begin their design process by researching materials and designs for their fruit package. Packages should be designed to hold one piece of fruit, such as an apple, pear, or orange. As a class decide which type of fruit the packages will be designed for. This will keep package material cost and shipping cost uniform.
The packaging should be suitable for shipping the piece of fruit through the U.S. Postal Service.
Explain to the students that they are not to purchase items from the websites, but they should use the websites to gather ideas for types of materials that could be used to package fruit.
After researching materials, students should assess the feasibility of several materials and designs that might work for their fruit packages. Each student should sketch their own design ideas on their lab sheet along with a list of materials and dimensions.
Each group should brainstorm ideas for their company name and design a decorative label that will go on the fruit. This should be recorded on the lab sheet.
As homework, each student will gather their necessary packaging materials. Suggest that students look in their recycling bins at home or at school. You may supply some basic materials, such as tape or cardboard if needed. Examples of packing materials include cardboard, wood shavings, corn packing peanuts, newspaper, tissue paper, cellophane, poster board, foam board, lint, and wool.
Students will meet in their groups and each student will design and build their own prototype package. Students may use the sample pieces of fruit to establish necessary dimensions for package design, however, package evaluation and testing will be done without fruit inside the package.
Each student will present their prototype package to the group and the group will evaluate the prototype for craftsmanship, aesthetics, and use of materials using the packaging rubric.
Each student will then subject their package prototype to a durability test for tearing and crushing. Following the test, students will report back to their groups to use the rubric to rate the durability of their packaging.
The package design with the highest score from the rubric will be chosen for further development.
The group will develop one final package for their fruit based on improving the design of the package that received the highest score from the rubric. The group must keep track of materials cost, package dimensions, shipping cost, and logistics.
Groups will present their package design, cost of materials, and cost of shipping to the class.
Ask students to think like a farmer who has grown the fruit. This farmer wants to choose a design that is durable enough to deliver their fruit to customers without any damage. The farmer also wants to choose a cost effective package.
Instruct the class to vote on the best package for shipping a piece of fruit.
The chosen package should be dropped off at the post office and shipped to the class address. When the package arrives at school, the class will evaluate the condition of the package and the fruit and will come up with ideas for package improvements.
Concept Elaboration and Evaluation
After conducting these activities, review and summarize the following key concepts:
Food packaging specialists play a role in safely transporting food from the farm to the consumer.
Our diets consist of a wider variety of foods because they can be shipped long distances.
Have each group mail their own package of fruit.
Have groups compare rates of different shipping companies.
This lesson incorporates hands-on activities. Kinesthetic learning events provide an excellent learning environment for English language learners.
Demonstrate all lab procedures to the class before beginning the lab.
Add new vocabulary to a word wall and match photos to the new words.
We welcome your feedback! Please take a minute to tell us how to make this lesson better or to give us a few gold stars!
Show students the Red Blossom California Strawberries website www.rbtrace.com and watch the strawberry packing video clip. Go through the trace back example to see how customers can enter the code on the bottom of their Red Blossom clamshell container to see what farm grew their strawberries, the variety, and date the strawberries were picked.
Tour a fruit packaging operation or take a virtual tour of a fruit packaging operation with YouTube.
Apply and document an engineering design process that includes identifying criteria and constraints, making representations, testing and evaluation, and refining the design as needed to construct a product or system to solve a problem. For example: Investigate how energy changes from one form to another by designing and constructing a simple roller coaster for a marble.
Agricultural Literacy Outcomes
Food, Health, and Lifestyle
Explain how factors, such as culture, convenience, access, and marketing affect food choices locally, regionally and globally (T3.6-8.d)
Identify the careers in food production, processing, and nutrition that are essential for a healthy food supply (T3.6-8.j)
Science, Technology, Engineering & Math
Identify science careers related to both producers and consumers of agricultural products (T4.6-8.g)
Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt. They consider analogous problems, and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution. They monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Students check their answers to problems using a different method, and they continually ask themselves, “Does this make sense?” They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches.
Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations. They bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize—to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents—and the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects.
Model with mathematics. Students can apply the mathematics they know to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. Students who can apply what they know are comfortable making assumptions and approximations to simplify a complicated situation, realizing that these may need revision later. They are able to identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships using such tools as diagrams, two-way tables, graphs, flowcharts and formulas. They can analyze those relationships mathematically to draw conclusions.
Attend to precision. Students try to communicate precisely to others. They try to use clear definitions in discussion with others and in their own reasoning. They state the meaning of the symbols they choose, including using the equal sign consistently and appropriately. They are careful about specifying units of measure, and labeling axes to clarify the correspondence with quantities in a problem. They calculate accurately and efficiently, express numerical answers with a degree of precision appropriate for the problem context.